MILK QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
The Milk Quality Improvement Program is a program funded by the New York State Dairy Promotion Board, dairy farmers dedicated to the production, manufacture and distribution of quality dairy products. The objectives of this program are to assist New York State dairy plants in improving the quality of dairy products and to monitor and make recommendations to improve the quality of raw milk produced in NYS. This site provides an overview of the mission, goals, history and activities of the Milk Quality Improvement Program.
Background & History
Research & Extension Activities
The mission of the Milk Quality Improvement Program is to provide support for New York State dairy producers and processors to help them in their efforts to increase the quality of raw and processed milk and milk products and to assure the safety and wholesomeness of dairy products.
Consumers expect fluid milk products to be nutritious, fresh-tasting, and wholesome. To the consumer, "quality" means that the product tastes good and that it keeps well in their home refrigerator. From a processor's or regulatory point of view, "quality" may be more objectively measured by comparing product conformance to established standards on the last day of sale. To maintain and/or increase market share, however, the processor's goal should be to meet the consumer's quality expectations. To that end, the overall goals of the Milk Quality Improvement Program (MQIP) are to assist NYS dairy plants in improving the quality of dairy products and to monitor and make recommendations to improve the quality of raw milk produced in NYS.
Cornell University has a long history of providing technical assistance to New York State dairy farmers and processors. The Department of Dairy Industry was formed in 1903. The name was changed to the Department of Dairy and Food Science in 1960. In 1966, the word "dairy" was dropped to yield the Department of Food Science, as it remains today. Despite the name change, dairy research and extension remain as major focus areas of the department, primarily due to the support of the New York State Dairy Promotion Board.
Milk quality and flavor research at Cornell was pioneered by Professor W. Frank Shipe in 1964-65. His survey work found that the flavor and quality of more than half of the milk sold in NYS at that time warranted "consumer complaint" within seven days of processing, with over a third specifically afflicted by "oxidized" flavor defects. As a consequence of this important work, the Tri-State (NY/NJ/PA) Milk Flavor Program was initiated to identify and correct quality problems through research and extension efforts.
The NYS Dairy Promotion Board funded its first project with the Department of Food Science in 1972. This project was designed to examine school milk quality. This survey, published in 1974, determined a direct correlation between milk flavor and levels of consumption by school-age children. This work revealed that children in districts receiving off-flavored products consumed 30% less milk than children in school districts regularly receiving good tasting milk. This study also identified the emerging incidence of rancid flavor defects, which were subsequently found to be widespread in the regular commercial supply. To address these established links between milk quality and product consumption, the NYS Dairy Promotion Board has provided support for Cornell's ongoing research and extension efforts designed to monitor and improve the quality of NYS dairy products. Further, the strong history of interest and support of the Board played a key role in the decision to establish the Northeast Dairy Foods Research Center at Cornell University in 1988.
Support provided by the NYS Dairy Promotion Board has allowed development of the Department of Food Science at Cornell University as a premier center for dairy research and extension. The research and extension activities of the MQIP and the Department of Food Science have contributed to improving the overall quality of NYS milk.
All laboratories and offices of the MQIP are located in the Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
VOLUNTARY SHELF LIFE PROGRAM:
Because of the economic significance of the fluid milk processing sector, the fluid milk Voluntary Shelf-Life (VSL) Program is the focal point of the MQIP at Cornell University. Under this program, each NYS processing plant is visited and sampled at least two times each year. Fluid milk products produced at each plant are collected and subjected to shelf-life studies. Analyses include: chemical (freezing point and fat determination), microbiological (standard plate count and coliform count), and sensory evaluation. Each processing plant receives a timely report on analyses of samples collected for shelf-life studies as well as the findings of the plant visitation.
The specific objectives of this project are:
- To monitor initial and keeping quality of commercially processed fluid milk products in New York State.
- To monitor raw milk quality in New York State.
- To assist NY State dairy plants in identifying and correcting handling and processing problems affecting dairy product quality.
- To support Cornell Cooperative Extension and the American Dairy Association in their missions of increasing per capita consumption of milk and enhancing financial returns to dairy farmers through improving the flavor and quality of New York State milk and dairy products.
Besides the VSL program, the MQIP personnel are involved in a variety of other extension activities supporting New York State dairy farmers in their efforts to increase the quality of raw and processed milk and milk products. They conduct a variety of workshops and present talks and papers at regional, national and international meetings. MQIP personnel also visit farms and dairy processing facilities and consult with farmers and processors to help improve the quality of their products and solve quality problems. For further information or if you are interested in a consultation with an extension specialist, please contact Janene Lucia at the address below or visit the Dairy Foods Extension Program page.
Dairy Foods Extension Program
Extension Calendar of Events
The laboratories and staff of the MQIP are involved in a variety of applied research projects related to the quality and safety of milk and dairy products. A number of research projects are conducted in collaboration with the Cornell Food Science Department Food Safety Laboratory. Results from these research projects are rapidly communicated to the dairy industry resulting in immediate improvements for the industry.
Examples of research projects include:
- Evaluation of ATP hygiene monitoring for trouble-shooting fluid milk shelf-life problems
- Development of PCR assays for the detection of spore-forming bacteria
- Evaluation of methods to monitor raw milk bacterial counts
- Evaluation of protective barriers for milk flavor and vitamin retention
- Determination of consumer acceptance of ultra-pasteurized milk
- Establishment of a database for dairy spoilage organisms & pathogens; tracking system for their origin
- Development of a quantitative descriptive analysis approach for sensory evaluation of dairy products
- Institution of the NYS cottage cheese shelf-life and quality improvement program
- Validation method for analysis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - anti-carcinogenic properties
- Investigation of growth characteristics of Streptococcus uberis in raw milk in relation to bacteria "spikes"
- Determination of threshold levels and consumer acceptance of light oxidation in milk
- Development of chemical analyses for standardized identification of sensory defects
- Shelf-life extension of high temperature shortage (HTST) pasteurized milk beyond 14 days
- Investigation and reduction of chocolate milk spoilage
- Support for dairy plant Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Program development
- Genetic profiling, characterization and tracking of spore-forming milk spoilage organisms
- Influence of processing parameters on bacterial outgrowth in milk (e.g., pasteurization temperature's influence on spore-formers)
- Assessment of levels and characterization of spore-former diversity (psychrotolerant, mesophilic, thermophilic) in raw milk and processed products
- Identification of farm practices that influence presence and numbers of spore-former types in raw milk
- Understanding the transmission of spore-formers in dairy powder processing facilities from raw milk/whey to bag
- Utilization of molecular fingerprinting tools to facilitate farm-to-product source tracking and raw milk quality improvement
Boor, K. J. 1997. Pathogenic microorganisms of concern to the dairy industry. Dairy Food. Environ. Sanit. 17 (11):714-717.
Boor, K. J. and D. N. Nakimbugwe. 1998. Quality and stability of 2% fat ultrapasteurized fluid milk products. Dairy Food. Environ. Sanit. 18(2):78-82.
Murphy, S. C., S. M. Kozlowski, D. K. Bandler, and K. J. Boor. 1998. Evaluation of ATP-bioluminescence hygiene monitoring for troubleshooting fluid milk shelf-life problems. J. Dairy Sci. 81:817-820.
Boor, K. J., D. Brown, S. Murphy, S. M. Kozlowski, and D. K. Bandler. 1998. Microbiological and chemical quality of raw milk in New York State. J. Dairy Sci. 81:1743-1748.
Ralyea, R. D., M. Wiedmann, and K. J. Boor. 1998. Bacterial tracking in a dairy production system using phenotypic and ribotyping methods. J. Food Prot. 61:1336-1340.
Chapman, K. W., L. C. Rosenberry, D. K. Bandler, and K. J. Boor. 1998. Light-oxidized flavor development in chocolate milk. J. Food Sci. 63:930-934.
Douglas, S. A., M. J. Gray, A. D. Crandall and K. J. Boor. 2000. Characterization of chocolate milk spoilage patterns. J. Food Prot. 63:516-521.
Murphy, S. C. and K. J. Boor. 2000. Troubleshooting sources and causes of high bacteria counts in raw milk. Dairy, Food Environ. Sanit. 20 (8):606-611.
Chapman, K. W., H. T. Lawless and K. J. Boor. 2001. Quantitative descriptive analysis and principal component analysis for sensory characterization of ultra-pasteurized milk. J. Dairy Sci. 84:12-20.
Hayes, M. C., R. D. Ralyea, S. C. Murphy, N. R. Carey, J. M. Scarlet and K. J. Boor. 2001. Identification and characterization of elevated microbial counts in bulk tank raw milk. J. Dairy Sci. 84:292-298.
Boor, K. J. 2001. Fluid dairy product quality and safety: looking to the future. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1-11.
Chapman, K. W. and K. J. Boor. 2001. Acceptance of 2% ultra-pasteurized milk by consumers, 6 to 11 years old. J. Dairy Sci. 84:951-954.
Murphy, S. C., L. J. Whited, B. H. Hammond, L. C. Rosenberry, D. K. Bandler and K. J. Boor. 2001. Fluid milk vitamin fortification compliance in New York State. J Dairy Sci. 84:2813-2820.
Whited, L. J., B. H. Hammond, K. W. Chapman and K. J. Boor. 2002. Vitamin A degradation and light-oxidized flavor defects in milk. J. Dairy Sci. 85:351-354.
Chapman, K. W., L. J. Whited and K. J. Boor. 2002. Sensory threshold of light-oxidized flavor defects in milk. J. Food Sci. 67:2770-2773.
Chapman, K. 2002. New study validates light blocking efforts - teens taste light-oxidation in milk and don't like it. Dairy Foods 103 (9):40-42.
Dogan, B. and K. J. Boor. 2003. Genetic diversity and spoilage potentials among Pseudomonas pp. isolated from fluid milk products and dairy processing plants. Apple. Environ. Micro. 69 (1):130-138.
Dogan, B. and K. J. Boor. 2004. Short communication: Growth characteristics of Streptococcus uberis in UHT-treated milk. J. Dairy Sci. 87(4): 813-815.
Fromm, H. I., and AK. DJ. Boor. 2004. Characterization of pasteurized fluid milk shelf-life attributes. DJ. Food Sci. 69:207-214.
Kabuki, D. Y., A. Y. Kuaye, M. Wiedmann, and K. J. Boor. 2004. Molecular subtyping and tracking of Listeria monocytogenes in Latin-style fresh-cheese processing plants. J. Dairy Sci. 87(9): 2803-2812.
Zadoks, R. N., R. N. Gonzalez, K. J. Boor, and Y. H. Schukken. 2004. Mastitis-causing streptococci are important contributors to bacterial counts in raw bulk tank milk. J. Food Prot. 67(12): 2644-2650.
Carey, N. R., S. C. Murphy, R. N. Zadoks and K. J. Boor. 2005. Shelf lives of pasteurized fluid milk products in New York state: A ten-year study. Food Prot. Trends 25:102-113.
Zadoks, R. N., L. L. Tikofsky, K. J. Boor. 2005. Ribotyping of Streptococcus uberis from a dairy's environment, bovine feces and milk. Veterinary-Microbiology 109(3-4): 257-265.
Dogan, B., Y. H. Schukken, C. Santisteban, and K. J. Boor. 2005. Distribution of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance genes among Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from bovine and human hosts. J. Clinical Microb. 43: 5899-5906.
Sukhnanand, S., B. Dogan, M. O. Ayodele, R. N. Zadoks, M. P. J. Craver, N. B. Dumas, Y. H. Schukken, K. J. Boor, and M. Wiedmann. 2005. Molecular subtyping and characterization of bovine and human Streptococcus agalactiae isolates. J. Clinical Microbial. 43:1177-1186.
Boor, K. J. 2005. Origin of the 60-day minimum holding period requirement for United States cheeses made from sub- or unpasteurized milk. Food Prot. Trends. 25: 767-770.
Durak, M. Z., H. I. Fromm, J. R. Huck, R. N. Zadoks and K. J. Boor. 2006. Development of molecular typing methods for Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp. isolated from fluid milk products. J. Food Sci. 71:M50-M56.
Murphy, S. C., N. R. Carey, B. H. Hammond and K. J. Boor. 2006. New York State cottage cheese shelf-life characteristics: a sixteen year perspective. Food Prot. Trends 26:158-164.
Riner, R. E., L. Sinack, S. Gillette, T. E. Graham, L. J. Maturin and S. C. Murphy. 2007. Evaluation of an in-line sampling system for the collection of raw milk samples for official testing. Food Prot. Trends 27:232-237.
Huck, J. R., B. H. Hammond, S. C. Murphy, N. H. Woodcock and K. J. Boor. 2007. Tracking spore-forming bacterial contaminants in fluid milk processing systems. J. Dairy Sci. 90:4872-4883.
Huck, J. R., N. H. Woodcock, R. D. Ralyea and K. J. Boor. 2007. Molecular subtyping and characterization of psychrotolerant endospore-forming bacteria in two NY State fluid milk processing systems. J. Food Prot. 70:2354-2364.
Huck, J. R, M. Sonnen, and K. J. Boor. 2008. Tracking heat-resistant, cold-thriving fluid milk spoilage bacteria from farm to packaged product. J. Dairy Sci. 91:1218-1228.
Kaylegian, K. E. Moag, D. M. Galton, and K. J. Boor. 2008. Raw milk consumption beliefs and practices among New York State dairy producers. Food Prot. Trends 28:184-191.
Latorre, A. A., J. A. S. van Kessel, J. S. Karns, M. J. Zurakowski, A. K. Pradhan, R. N. Zadoks, K. J. Boor, and Y. H. Schukken. 2009. Molecular ecology of Listeria monocytogenes: evidence for a reservoir in milking equipment on a dairy farm. Applied & Env. Microbiol. 75 (5):1315-1323.
Oliver, S. P., K. J. Boor, S. C. Murphy and S. E. Murinda. 2009. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 6(7): 793-806.
Woodcock, N. H., B. H. Hammond, R. D. Ralyea and K. J. Boor. 2009. Short communication: Nalpha-lauroyl-L-arginine ethylester monohydrochloride reduces bacterial growth in pasteurized milk. J. Dairy Sci. 92:4207-4210.
Ranieri, M. L., and K. J. Boor. 2009. Short communication: bacterial ecology of high-temperature, shot-time pasteurized milk processed in the United States. J. Dairy Sci. 92:4833-4840.
Ranieri, M. L., J. R. Huck, M. Sonnen, D. M. Barbano and K. J. Boor. 2009. High temperature, short time pasteurization temperatures inversely affect bacterial numbers during refrigerated storage of pasteurized fluid milk. J. Dairy Sci. 92:4823-4832.
Latorre, A. A., J. S. van Kessel, J. S. Karns, M. J. Zurakowski, A. K. Pradhan, K. J. Boor, B. M. Jayarao, B. A. Houser, C. S. Daugherty, and Y. H. Schukken. 2010. Biofilm in milking equipment on a dairy farm as a potential source of bulk tank milk contamination with Listeria monocytogenes. J. Dairy Sci. 93:2792-2802.
Ranieri, M. L., and K. J. Boor. 2010. Tracking and eliminating spore-formers in dairy systems. Australian J. of Dairy Techn. 65:74-80.
Martin, N. H., M. L. Ranieri, S. C. Murphy, R. D. Ralyea, M. Wiedmann, and K. J. Boor. 2011. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk. J. Dairy Sci. 94:1211-1222.
Martin, N. H., S. C. Murphy, R. D. Ralyea, M. Wiedmann, and K. J. Boor. 2011. When cheese gets the blues: Pseudomonas fluorescens as the causative agent of cheese spoilage. J. Dairy Sci. 94:3176-3183.
Martin, N. H., M. L. Ranieri, M. Wiedmann, and K. J. Boor. 2012. Reduction of pasteurization temperature leads to lower bacterial outgrowth in pasteurized fluid milk during refrigerated storage: A case study. J. Dairy Sci. 95:471-475.
Van Tassell, J. A., N. H. Martin , S. C. Murphy, M. Wiedmann, K. J. Boor, and R. A. Ivy. 2012. Evaluation of various selective media for the detection of Pseudomonas species in pasteurized milk. J. Dairy Sci. 95:1568-1574.
Ivy, R. A., M. L. Ranieri, N. H. Martin, H. C. den Bakker, B. M. Xavier, M. Wiedmann, and K. J. Boor. 2012. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant sporeformers associated with fluid milk production and processing. Applied & Environ. Microbiol. 78:1853-1864.
Martin, N. H., N. R. Carey, S. C. Murphy, M. Wiedmann, and K. J. Boor. 2012. A decade of improvement: New York State fluid milk quality. J. Dairy Sci. 95:7384-7390.
Ranieri, M. L., R. A. Ivy, W. R. Mitchell, E. Call, S. N. Masiello, M. Wiedmann, and K. Boor. 2012. Real-time PCR Detection of Paenibacillus spp. in raw milk to predict shelf-life performance of pasteurized fluid milk products. Applied & Environ. Microbiol. 78:5855-5863.
Relevant Book Chapters:
Wiedmann, M., K. J. Boor, H. Eisgruber and K. J. Zaadhof. 1999. Clostridium tyrobutyricum. In: Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (R. Robinson, C. Batt, and P. Patel, ed's.) Academic Press, NY. pp. 451-458.
Hayes, M. C. and K. J. Boor. 2001. Raw milk microbiology and fluid milk products. In: Applied Dairy Microbiology, 2nd ed. (J. L. Steele and E. H. Marth, ed's.) Marcel De, Inc., NY. pp. 59-76.
Boor, K. J. and S. C. Murphy. 2002. Microbiology of market milks. In: Dairy Microbiology, Third Edition, (R. Robinson, ed.) John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY. pp. 91-122.
Murphy, S. M. 2010. HACCP and other food safety systems in milk processing. In: Improving the Safety and Quality of Milk. Volume 1: Milk Production and Processing (M. Griffiths, ed.) Woodhead Publishing Limited, Oxford. pp. 451-481.
Sporeforming bacteria in dairy systems. Matthew Ranieri. Presented at: Global Cheese Technology Forum, Reno, NV. October 10-12-2011.
Identification of farm practices associated with the presence of psychrotolerant Bacillus spp. and related sporeformers in bulk tank milk. Stephanie Masiello, Nicole Martin, Rick Watters, David Galton, Ynte Schukken and Kathryn Boor. Presented at: International Association for Food Protection. Milwaukee, WI. July 31-August 4, 2011.
Psychrotolerant sporeformers of the family Bacillaceae as emerging food spoilage organisms: Paenibacillus and others. Matthew Ranieri. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Presented at: International Association for Food Protection. Milwaukee, WI. July 31-Aug 4, 2011.
Development of a real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of spoilage Paenibacillus spp. in fluid milk. Matthew Ranieri*, Robert Mitchell, Reid Ivy, Emma Call, Nicole Martin, Martin Wiedmann and Kathryn Boor. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Presented at: American Dairy Science Association. New Orleans, LA. July 10-14, 2011.
Phylogenic analysis and characterization of bacterial sporeformer isolates obtained from raw milk, pasteurized milk, and dairy farm environments. R. A. Ivy*, M. L. Ranieri, N. H. Martin, H. C. den Bakker, B. M. Xavier, M. Wiedmann, and K. J. Boor, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. American Dairy Science Association. New Orleans, LA. July 10-14, 2011.
Reprints of these articles can be obtained from Janene Lucia:
|Janene Lucia Department of Food Science Stocking Hall Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853|
The MQIP is responsible for the production and distribution of the Dairy Foods Science Notes and other informational bulletins, which provide brief overviews of topics of current interest to the dairy industry and consumers. The following documents are currently available and can be downloaded in PDF format:
Milk Quality Improvement Program - MQIP
MQIP - Pasteurized Milk Voluntary Shelf-Life Program
Raw Milk Dangers of Consumption - Consumer Sheet
Raw Milk Sales & Consumption - Position Statement
School Milk - Handling to Maintain Quality
Sanitation in Soft-Serve Frozen Dessert
Pasteurized Fluid Milk Quality & Shelf-Life
Recommendations for Improved Milk Shelf Life
Evaluation of Fluid Milk Shelf-Life - Bacterial Methods
Pasteurized Milk versus Ultra Pasteurized Milk
Importance of Raw Milk Quality on Dairy Products
General Dairy Bacteriology
Bacteria in Raw Milk - Review
Microscopic Evaluation of Milk - Bacteria (draft)
Microscopic Evaluation of Milk - Somatic Cells (draft)
Coliform Bacteria - Indicators in Food & Water
Preliminary Incubation Count for Raw Milk
Thermoduric Bacteria in Raw & Pasteurized Milk
Psychrotrophic Spore Formers & Pasteurized Milk
Dairy Starter Cultures General Characteristics
Lactic Acid Bacteria - Homo/Hetero-Fermentative
Listeria monocytogenes in the Dairy Environment
Sensory & Chemistry
Alkaline Phosphatase Test for Milk Pasteurization
Flavor and Odor Defects in Milk
Light-Induced Defects in Milk
Light-Induced Defects in Milk - Threshold Exposure
Vitamin Fortification of Fluid Milk
MQIP MILKFACTS.INFO WEB SITE
The goal of milkfacts.info is to provide consumers with factual, scientifically supported information about the composition, nutritional content, health issues, and microbial issues associated with milk. It is our hope that this information will be used by consumers to make informed choices about the consumption of pasteurized and raw milk products.
MQIP Milk Facts Web Site
Northeast Dairy Foods Research Center (NED)
New York State Association for Food Protection (NYSAFP)
New York State Cheese Manufacturers Association (NYS)
New York State Department of Agriculture & Markets (NYSDAM)
NYSAFP LINKS PAGE (listing of multiple informational links)
Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, 2005 (PDF) -- Superseded by 2007
Pasteurized Milk Ordinance 2007 (PDF) -- Superceded by 2009
Pasteurized Milk Ordinance 2009 (PDF) -- Superceded by 2011
Pasteurized Milk Ordinance 2011 (PDF) -- Current